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Paul Bunyan Education Cooperative - Early Childhood

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Birth to Three Goals

Regulatory / Sensory Organization


Development of Symbolic Play

Gestural Imitation

Sound Awareness, and Localization

Problem Solving

Object Permanence


Cause and Effect

Spacial Relationships



Understands Numbers

Discrimination / Classification

Matching and Sorting




Language – Receptive

Understanding the meaning of words

Objects, Events, and Relationships

Body Parts

Understanding and Following Directions



Expressive Vocabulary

Communicating with Others



Learning Grammar and Sentence Structures

Development of Sounds and Intelligibility

Communicating through Rhythm


Gross Motor: Birth – 15 Months

Prone (lying on stomach)

Supine (lying on back)


Weight-bearing in Standing

Mobility and Transitional Movements

Reflexes / Reactions / Responses

Reflexes / Reactions

Anti-Gravity Responses


Gross Motor: 15 – 35 Months

Advancing Postural Control


Walking / Running




Catching / Throwing

Riding a Tricycle

Balance beam


Fine Motor

Visual Responses and Tracking

Grasp and Prehension

Reach / Approach

Development of Voluntary Release

Bilateral and Midline Skills

Perceptual – Motor Integration of Foundations of Fine Motor



Block Construction


Paper Activities

Manipulative Prehension



Stringing Beads



Social – Emotional

Attachment / Separation / Autonomy

Development of Self

Expression of Emotions and Feelings

Learning Rules and Expectations

Social Interactions and Play


Self Help

Oral-Motor Development


Sleep Patterns and Behaviors

Grooming and Hygiene



Regulatory / Sensory Organization


Quiets when picked up

Responds to sound

Enjoys and needs a great deal of physical contact and tactile stimulation

Molds and relaxes body when held; cuddles

Shows pleasure when touched and handled

Inspects surroundings

Listens to voice for 30 seconds

Stays awake for longer periods without crying – usually in p.m.

Shows active interest in person / object <= 1 minute

Uses hands and mouth for sensory exploration of objects

Stops unexplained crying

Enjoys social play

Localizes tactile stimulation by touching the same spot or searching for object that touched body

Enjoys frolic play

Smells different things

Plays 2-3 minutes with a single toy

Listens to speech without being distracted by other sources

Drools less except when teething

Finger feeds self

Sleeps nights twelve to fourteen hours

Cooperates with dressing by extending arm, leg

Enjoys messy activities

Reacts to various sensations such as extremes in temperature and taste

Uses play dough and paints

Enjoys solitary play for a few minutes

Enjoys rough and tumble play

Handles fragile items carefully

Enjoys tactile books

Plays with water and sand

Identifies familiar objects by touch

Enjoys being read to and looks at books independently

Participates in circle games; plays interactive games



Development of Symbolic Play

Begins play with rattles

Uses hands and mouth for sensory exploration of objects

Bangs object on table

Plays 2-3 minutes with a single toy

Plays with paper

Slides toy or object on surface

Engages in simple relational play

Demonstrates drinking from cup

Imitates doing housework and other real-life activities

Symbolic play with realistic props

Dramatizes using a doll

Engages in simple make-believe activities

Talks intelligently to self

Plays house

Gestural Imitation

Imitates familiar gesture

Imitates new gesture

Imitates several new gestures

Imitates “ invisible” gesture

Imitates several “invisible” gestures

Sound Awareness, and Localization

Responds to sounds

Responds to voice

Searches with eyes for sound

Turns eyes and head to sound of hidden voice

Localized sound with eyes

Finds hidden sound from below after turning head to side

Finds hidden sound from below by looking directly

Finds hidden sound from above after turning head to side

Finds hidden sound from above looking directly

Finds hidden sound from directly above and behind

Problem Solving

Object Permanence

Reacts to disappearance of slowly moving object

Finds a partially hidden object

Finds hidden object using one screen

Finds hidden object using two screens

Finds hidden object using three screens

Finds hidden object under three superimposed screens

Hidden displacement once screen

Hidden  displacement two screens

Hidden displacement three screens

Hidden displacement two screens alternately

Series of hidden displacements; object under last screen

Series of hidden displacements; object under first screen


Reaches for second object purposefully

Works for desired, out of reach object

Retains two of three objects offered

Retains two and reaches for third object

Retrieves object using other material

Overcomes obstacle to obtain object

Uses locomotion to regain object; resumes play

Pulls string horizontally to obtain toy

Pulls string vertically to get toy

Inverts small container to obtain tiny object after demonstration

Inverts small container spontaneously to obtain tiny object

Solves simple problems using tools

Opens doors by turning knob

Cause and Effect

Inspects own hands

Enjoys repeating newly learned activity

Continues a familiar activity by initiating movements involved

Shows interest in sounds of objects

Touches toy or adult’s hand to restart an activity

Guides action on toy manually

Hands toy back to adult

Attempts and then succeeds in activating mechanical toy

Spacial Relationships

Looks from one object to another

Reaches and grasps object

Anticipates visually the trajectory of a slowly moving object

Follow trajectory of fast moving object

Takes objects out of container

Rotates objects to find functional side

Throws objects

Takes ring stack apart

Puts three or more objects into container

Looks at place where ball rolls out of sight

Builds tower using two cubes

Pulls string vertically to obtain toy

Stacks rings

Makes detours to retrieve objects

Inverts small container spontaneously to obtain tiny object

Brings objects from another room on request

Rights familiar picture

Finds detail in favorite picture book

Completes three-four piece puzzle




Looks at named pictures one minute when named

Enjoys looking at pictures in books

Pats picture

Matches objects to picture

Points to five-seven pictures of familiar objects / people

Recognizes familiar adult in photo


Understands concept of one

Gives one out many

Understands concept of two


Discrimination / Classification

Matching and Sorting

Shows understanding of color

Matches objects

Sorts objects

Matches shapes – circles, triangle, square

Matches colors – black, white

Matches identical simple pictures of objects

Matches primary colors

Matches similar pictures of objects

Sorts shapes – circle, triangle, square [toys]

Sorts colors and points to several colors when named


Shows understanding of size

Nests two then three cans

Assembles four nesting blocks

Uses size words

Stacks rings in correct order

Points to larger or smaller of two spoons

Identifies longer stick

Begins to pick longer of two lines


Matches sounds to animals

Matches sounds to pictures of animals

Demonstrates use of objects

Identifies clothing items for different occasions

Identifies objects with their use

Identifies body parts with their function

Begins to respond to opposite analogies


Language – Receptive

Understanding the meaning of words

Objects, Events, and Relationships

Watches speaker’s eyes and mouth

Looks and vocalizes to own name

Looks for family members or pets when named

Listens selectively to familiar words

Knows what “no no” means and reacts

Shows understanding of words by appropriate behavior or gesture

Understands most noun objects

Recognizes and points to four animal pictures

Points to several clothing items on request

Understands personal pronouns, some action verbs and adjectives

Identifies rooms in own house

Understands complex / compound sentences

Selects pictures involving action words

Listens to stories

Understands many action verbs

Understands more adjectives

Formulates negative reasoning

Understands all common verbs, most common adjectives, some prepositions

Body Parts

Identifies one body part

Identifies three body parts

Identifies six body parts

Knows more body parts

Points to six body parts on a picture of a doll


Understanding and Following Directions

Responds to simple requests with gestures

Responds to simple verbal requests

Indicates two objects from group of familiar objects

Obeys two part (related) commands

Obeys two part (separate) commands



Expressive Vocabulary

Says “dada” or “mama,” specifically

Uses expressive vocabulary one-three words

Uses exclamatory expressions – “oh-oh,” “no-no”

Says “no” meaningfully

Names one or two familiar objects

Uses 10-15 words spontaneously

Uses expressive vocabulary of 15-20 words

Uses own name to refer to self

Names two pictures

Uses nouns, verbs, modifiers

Names three pictures

Imitates spontaneously or requests new words

Names five pictures

Uses “self-centered” pronouns

Uses expressive vocabulary of 50+ words

Uses size works

Refers to self using pronoun

Verbalizes one preposition

Names eight or more pictures

Gives full name on request

Uses expressive vocabulary of 200+ words

Verbalizes two prepositions

Uses expressive vocabulary of 300-1000 words

Verbalizes three prepositions


Communicating with Others


Shows active interest in person / object for at least one minute

Continues a familiar activity by initiating movements involved

Lifts arms to parent

Waves or responds to  bye-bye

Extends toy to show others, not for release

Understands pointing

Greets with verbal cues

Gives toy to familiar adult spontaneously and upon request

Gestures spontaneously to indicate needs

Points to distant object outdoors

Interacts with peers using gestures


Cry varies in pitch, length and volume to  indicate needs e.g., hunger pain

Responds to sound stimulation or speech by vocalizing

Vocalizes attitudes other than crying – joy, anger

Babbles to people

Shouts for attention

Babbles in response to human voice

Experiments with communication – not frustrated when not understood

Vocalizes spontaneously to indicate needs

Uses voice in conjunction with pointing or gesturing

Vocalizes wishes and needs at the table; names desired items

Echoes prominent or last word spoden

Tells experience using jargon and words

Experiments with communication – frustrated when not understood

Relates experiences using short sentences

Answers questions

Frustrated if not understood – utterances have communicative intent

Vocalizes for all needs

Participates in storytelling

Relates experiences more frequently using short sentences

Asks questions beginning with “what”, “where”, “when”


Learning Grammar and Sentence Structures

Uses single-word sentences

Imitates two word phrases

Uses two-word sentences

Imitates four word phrases

Uses three word sentences

Uses past tense

Uses plurals

Over regulates and systematizes plurals and verbs [foots, doed]

Uses most basic grammatical structures

Repeats five-word sentences


Development of Sounds and Intelligibility

Cry is monotonous, nasal, one breath long

Makes comfort sounds – reflexive vocal

Makes sucking sounds

Cries more rhythmically with mouth opening and closing

Coos open vowels [aah], closed vowels [ee], diphthongs [oy as in boy]

Disassociates vocalizations from bodily movement

Babbles consonant chains “baba-baba”

Babbles double consonants “baba”

Says “dada” or “mama,” nonspecifically

Vocalizes in interjectional manner

Babbles with inflection similar to adult

Babbles single consonant “ba”

Produces these sounds frequently in babbling: b, m, p, d, t, n, g, k, w, h, f, v, th, s, z, l, r

Babbles monologue when left alone

Speech may plateau as child learns to walk

Unable to talk while walking

Omits final and some initial consonants

Babbles intricate inflection

Makes sounds in babbling, but often substitutes those sounds in words

Jabbers tunefully at play

Uses jargon with good inflection and rate

Imitates environmental sounds

Uses intelligible words about 65 percent of the time

Uses elaborate jargon

Produces the following sounds clearly: p, b, m, k, g, w, h, n, t, d

Produces sounds correctly at beginning of words

Replaces jargon with sentences

Repeats words and sounds

Uses intelligible words about 80 percent of the time


Communicating through Rhythm

Reacts to music by cooing

Moves to rhythms

Attempts to sing sounds to music

Attempts to sing songs with words

Enjoys nursery rhymes, nonsense rhymes, fingerplays, poetry

Sings phrases of songs

Recites a few nursery rhymes


Gross Motor: Birth – 15 Months

Prone (lying on stomach)

Holds head to one side in prone

Lifts head in prone

Holds head up 45 degrees in prone

Extends both legs

Rotates and extends head

Holds chest up in prone – weight on forearms

Holds head up 90 degrees in prone

Bears weight on hands in prone

Holds weight on one hand in prone


Supine (lying on back)

Turns head to both sides in supine

Extends both legs

Kicks reciprocally

Assumes withdrawal position

Brings hands to midline in supine

Looks with head in midline

Brings feet to mouth

Raises hips pushing with feet in supine

Lifts head in supine

Struggles against supine position



Holds head steady in supported sitting

Sits with slight support

Moves head actively in supported sit

Sits momentarily leaning on hands

Holds head erect when leaning forward

Sits independently indefinitely may use hands

Sits without hand support for 10 minutes


Weight-bearing in Standing

Bears some weight on legs

Bears almost all weight on legs

Bears large fraction of weight on legs and bounces

Stands, holding on

Stands momentarily

Stands a few seconds

Stands alone well


Mobility and Transitional Movements

Rolls side to supine

Rolls prone to supine

Rolls supine to side

Rolls supine to prone

Circular pivoting in prone

Brings one knee forward beside trunk in prone

Crawls backward

Crawls forward

Goes from sitting to prone

Assumes hand-knee position

Gets to sitting without assistance

Makes stepping movements

Pulls to standing at furniture

Lowers to sitting from furniture

Creeps on hands and knees

Walks holding onto furniture

Pivots on sitting – twists to pick up objects

Creeps on hands and feet

Walks with both hands held

Stands by lifting one foot

Assumes and maintains kneeling

Walks with one hand held

Walks alone two to three steps

Falls by sitting

Stands from supine by turning on all fours

Creeps or hitches upstairs

Walks without support

Stoops and recovers


Reflexes / Reactions / Responses

Reflexes / Reactions

Neck righting reactions

Flexor withdrawal inhibited

Extensor thrust inhibited

ATNR inhibited

Body righting on body reaction

Moro reflex inhibited

Protective extension of arms and legs downward

Demonstrates balance reactions in prone

Protective extension of arms to side and front

Demonstrates balance reactions in supine

Demonstrates balance reactions in sitting

Protective extension of arms to back

Demonstrates balance reactions on hands / knees

Demonstrates balance reactions in kneeling


Anti-Gravity Responses

Lifts head when held at shoulder

Holds head in same plane as body when held in ventral suspension

Holds head beyond plane as body when held in ventral suspension

Extends head, back and hips when held in ventral position

Holds head in line with body – pull to sit

Lifts head and assists when pulled to sitting

Extends head, back, hips and legs in ventral suspension


Gross Motor: 15 – 35 Months

Advancing Postural Control


Bends over and looks through legs

Demonstrates balance reactions in standing

Walks into large ball while trying to kick it

Stands on one foot with help

Picks up toy from floor without falling

Kicks ball forward

Squats in play

Stands from supine by rolling to side

Stands on tiptoes

Imitates one foot standing

Imitates simple bilateral movements of limbs, head and trunk

Stands from supine using a sit-up

Stands on one foot on-five seconds


Walking / Running

Walks sideways

Walks backwards

Runs – hurried walk

Pulls toy behind while walking

Carries large toy while walking

Pushes and pulls large toys or boxes

Runs fairly well

Walks with legs closer together

Runs – stops without holding and avoids obstacles

Walks on tip-toes a few steps

Walks backward ten feet

Walks on tiptoes ten feet

Avoids obstacles in path

Runs on toes

Makes sharp turns around corners when running



Jumps in place both feet

Jumps a distance of 8 to 14 inches

Jumps from bottom step

Jumps backwards

Jumps sideways

Jumps on trampoline with adult holding hands

Jumps over string 2 to 8 inches hight

Hops on one foot

Jumps a distance of 14 to 24 inches

Jumps a distance of 24 to 34 inches



Backs into small chair or slides sideways

Climbs forward on adult chair, turns around and sits

Goes up and down slide

Climbs jungle gyms and ladders



Walks upstairs with one hand held

Walks upstairs holding rail – both feet on step

Walks downstairs holding rail – both feet on step

Walks downstairs with one hand held

Walks upstairs alone – both feet on step

Walks downstairs alone – both feet on step

Walks upstairs alternating feet

Walks downstairs alternating feet


Catching / Throwing

Throws underhand sitting

Throws ball forward

Throws overhand within 3 feet of target

Throws ball into a box

Catches large ball

Catches eight inch ball


Riding a Tricycle

Moves on “ride on” toys without pedals

Rides tricycle

Uses pedals on tricycle alternately


Balance beam

Walks with assistance on 8-inch board

Walks independently on 8-inch board

Tries to stand on 2-inch balance beam

Walks a few steps with one foot on 2-inch balance beam

Walks on line in general direction

Walks between parallel lines 8 inches apart

Stands on 2-inch beam with both feet

Attempts to step on 2-inch  balance beam

Alternates steps part way on 2-inch balance beam

Keeps feet on line for 10 feet


Fine Motor

Visual Responses and Tracking

Regards colorful object momentariely

Follows with eyes moving person while in supine

Regards colorful object for a few seconds

Stress and gazes

Blinks at sudden visual stimulus

Follows with eyes to midline

Follows with eyes past midline

Follows with eyes 180 degrees

Follows with eyes downward

Follows with eyes upward

Follows with eyes moving object in supported sitting

Follows with eyes without head movement

Regards tiny object

Looks at distant objects


Grasp and Prehension

Indwelling thumb no longer present

Uses ulnar palmar grasp

Uses palmar grasp

Uses radial palmar grasp

Attempts to secure tiny object

Rakes tiny object

Uses radial digital grasp

Uses inferior pincer grasp

Pokes with index finger

Uses neat pincer grasp

Grasps crayon adaptively

Points with index finger

Holds crayon with thumb and fingers

Holds pencil with thumb and fingers – adult-like grasp


Reach / Approach

Activates arms on sight of toy

Inspects own hands

Reaches toward toy without grasping

Reaches for toy followed by momentary grasp

Reaches and grasps object

Recovers object

Reaches and grasps object with extended elbow

Extends wrist

Supinates forearm


Development of Voluntary Release

Grasps toy actively

Keeps hands open 50 percent of time

Grasp reflex inhibited

Keeps hands open most of the time

Drops object

Transfers object

Manipulates toy actively with wrist movements

Drops objects systematically

Releases object voluntarily

Puts objects in container

Puts three or more objects into small container

Puts many objects into container without removing any

Puts tiny object into small container


Bilateral and Midline Skills

Moves arms symmetrically

Brings hands to midline in supine

Clasps hands

Looks with head in midline

Reaches for object bilaterally

Places both hands on bottle

Retains small object in each hand

Reaches for object unilaterally

Transfers object

Bangs two cubes held in hands

Unwraps a toy

Uses both hands freely; may show preference for one

Uses both hands in midline – one holds, other manipulates


Perceptual – Motor Integration of Foundations of Fine Motor



Watches adult scribble

Tries to imitate scribble

Marks paper with crayon

Scribbles spontaneously

Imitates vertical stroke

Imitates circular scribble

Imitates horizontal stroke

Imitates a cross

Makes first designs or spontaneous forms

Copies a circle


Block Construction

Places one block on top of another without balancing

Builds tower using two cubes

Builds tower using three cubes

Builds tower using four cubes

Builds tower using six cubes

Imitates three block train using cubes

Builds tower using eight cubes

Imitates three block bridge using cubes

Builds tower using nine cubes



Removes round piece from formboard

Places cylinders in matching hole in container

Places round piece in formboard

Places square piece in formboard

Places triangular piece in formboard


Paper Activities

Pastes on one side

Paints within limits of paper

Folds paper imitatively, note precisely

Folds paper in half

Pastes on appropriate side


Manipulative Prehension


Helps turn pages

Turns two or three pages at a time

Turns pages one at a time



Removes pegs from pegboard

Places one round peg in pegboard

Places six round pegs in pegboard

Places six square pegs in pegboard


Stringing Beads

Strings one one-inch bead

Strings three one-inch beads

String ˝-inch beads



Snips with scissors

Snips on line using scissors


Social – Emotional

Attachment / Separation / Autonomy

Enjoys and needs a great deal of physical contact and tactile stimulation

Establishes eye contact

Draws attention to self when in distress

Awakens or quiets to parent’s voice

Socializes with strangers / anyone

Discriminates strangers

Recognizes parent visually

Lifts arms to parent

Explores adult features

Displays stranger anxiety

Shows anxiety over separation from parent

Lets only parent meet his needs

Explores environment enthusiastically – safety precautions important

Likes to be in constant sight and hearing of adult

Attempts self-direction: resists adult control

Displays dependent behavior; clings / whines

Feels strongly possessive of loved ones

Separates easily in familiar surroundings

Shows independence

Insists on doing things independently


Development of Self

Inspects own hands

Plays with own hands, feet fingers, toes

Makes approach movements to mirror

Explores adult features

Looks and vocalizes to own name

Smiles at mirror image

Distinguishes self as separate from parent

Responds playfully to mirror

Shows like / dislike for certain people, objects, places

Displays independent behavior; is difficult to discipline – the “no” stage

Shows toy preferences

Enjoys being center of attention

Recognizes several people in addition to immediate family

Identifies self in mirror

Uses own name to refer to self

Experiences a strong sense of self-importance

Recognizes self in photograph

Uses “self-centered” pronouns

Values own property; uses word “mine”

Takes pride in clothing

Becoming aware of sex differences

Distinguishes a self as a separate person; contrasts self with others

Knows own sex or sex of others

Takes pride in achievements; resists help


Expression of Emotions and Feelings

Cries when hungry or uncomfortable

Smiles reflexively

Responds with smile when socially approached



Vocalizes attitudes – pleasure and displeasure

Responds to facial expressions

May show fear and insecurity with previously accepted situations

Displays frequent tantrum behaviors

Hugs and kisses parents

Expresses affection

Shows jealousy at attention given to others, especially other family member

Shows a wide variety of emotions, e.g., fear, anger, sympathy, modesty, guilt, joy

Feels easily frustrated

Attempts to comfort others in distress

Frustration tantrums peak

Dramatizes using a doll

Fatigues easily

May develop sudden fears, especially of large animals

Demonstrates extreme emotional shifts and paradoxical responses


Learning Rules and Expectations

Shows anticipatory excitement

Becomes aware of strange situations

Distinguishes between friendly and angry voices

Test parental reactions during feeding

Tests parental reactions at bedtime

Knows what “no no” means and reacts

Acts impulsively, unable to recognize rules

Hands toy back to adult

Needs and expects rituals and routines

Begins to show sense of humor – laughs at incongruities

Displays distractible behavior

Tends to be quite messy

Desires control of others – orders, fights, resists

Remembers where objects belong

Demonstrates awareness of class routines

Holds parent’s hand outdoors

Says “no,” but submits anyway

Dawdles and procrastinates

Begins to obey and respect simple rules

Resists change; is extremely ritualistic

Experiences difficulty with transitions


Social Interactions and Play

Regards face

Establishes eye contact

Molds and relaxes body when held; cuddles

Responds with smile when socially approached

Vocalizes in response to adult talk and smile

Laughs when head is covered with a cloth

Demands social attention

Enjoys social play

Hand regard no longer present

Repeats enjoyable activities

Plays “peek-a-boo”

Cooperates in games

Extends toy to show others, not for release

Repeats sounds or gestures if laughed at

Gives toy to familiar adult spontaneously and upon request

Plays ball cooperatively

Interacts with peers using gestures

Engages in parallel play

Defends possessions

Displays shyness with strangers in and outside situations

Tends to be physically aggressive

Enjoys a wide range of relationships; meets more people

Relates best to one familiar adult at a time

Engages best in peer interaction with just one older child, not a sibling

Initiates own play, but requires supervision to carry out ideas

Tends to be dictatorial and demanding

Talks with a loud, urgent voice

Participates in circle games; plays interactive games


Self Help

Oral-Motor Development

Opens and closes mouth in response to food stimulus

Coordinates sucking, swallowing, and breathing

Suck and swallow reflex inhibited

Swallows strained or pureed foods

Rooting reflex inhibited

Uses tongue to move food in mouth

Mouths and munches solid foods

Bites and chews toys

Bites food voluntarily

Dirnks from cub held for him

Drools les except when teething

Chews food with coordinated movements

Chews completely with rotary jaw movements



Cooperates with dressing by extending arm or leg

Removes had

Removes socks

Places hat on head

Removes shoes when laces undone

Unzips, zips large zipper

Puts shoes on with assistance

Pulls pants down with assistance

Unbuttons large buttons

Undresses with assistance

Pulls pants up with assistance

Dresses self with assistance

Buttons large buttons

Dresses with supervision, requires assistance with fastenings

Independent Feeding

Brings hand to mouth

Brings hand to mouth with toy or object

Recognizes bottle visually

Pats bottle

Places both hands on bottle

Holds own bottle

Feeds self a cracker

Finger feeds self

Holds spoon

May refuse foods – appetite decreases

Brings spoon to mount – turns spoon over

Holds and drinks from cup with some spilling

Holds cup handle

Scoops food, feeds self with spoon with some spilling

Gives empty dish to adult

Distinguishes between edible and inedible objects

Gives up bottle

Plays with food

Holds small cup in one hand

May have definite food preferences

Unwraps food

Holds spoon in fingers – palm up

May reject many foods

Pours liquid from small container

Uses fork

Uses napkin

Serves self at table with little spilling


Sleep Patterns and Behaviors

Sleeps nights for-ten hour intervals

Naps frequently

Sleeps nights ten-twelve hours with night awakening

Naps two-three times each day one-four hours

Sleeps nights twelve-fourteen hours

Naps once or twice each day one-four hours, may refuse morning nap

Tests parental reactions at bedtime

Sleeps nights ten-twelve hours

Naps once in afternoon one-three hours

Delays sleeping by demanding things

Sleeps ten-fifteen hours daily

May awaken, crying from dreams

May eliminate naps


Grooming and Hygiene

Washes and dries hands partially

Washes hands

Brushes teeth with assistance

Dries hands

Helps with bathing self

Blows nose with assistance



Shows bladder and bowel control pattern

Indicates discomfort over soiled pants verbally or by gesture

Sits on potty chair or on adaptive seat on toilet with assistance

May be toilet regulated by adult

Anticipates need to eliminate – use same word for both functions

Anticipates need to eliminate in time

Uses toilet with assistance – has daytime control

Distinguishes between urination and bowel movements

Verbalizes need to use toilet – has occasional accidents

©2007 Paul Bunyan Education Cooperative